Greece since ancient times is a region rich in animal species. As a crossroads between continents, it has always been a gateway for primitive dogs migrating to and from Asia, Africa, Europe and the Mediterranean. Some of these populations developed on the Hellenic peninsula, the islands of the Aegean and the Ionian seas since prehistory, evolving locally by natural selection and adaptation to the environment, and were shaped over a very long time by the continuous process and evolutionary pressures generated by the constant flow of human and animal migrations, forming differentiated landraces. The turbulent history as well as the farming and transhumance culture favored the development of very resilient dogs with exceptional biological fitness and traits. The world literature pays homage to the ancient Greek dogs, whose names became standard terms in canine terminology and their legacy became the foundation bedrock of numerous subsequent European breeds. The lack of protection by the state and the absence of public education in all dog-related issues has doomed many of these wonderful indigenous dogs to obscurity and threatens them with extinction. The ones that have survived to this day represent precious and unique, living cultural treasures, invaluable reservoirs of genetic diversity, charismatic companions and multi-talented helpers. We inherited them from our ancestors, we owe them to the future generations and above all they have won the right of their existence within human society: it is our duty to honor, respect, preserve and protect them.